System Labels

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Normally, execution of a user-defined function/operator starts execution at line one. However, in certain contexts, execution may start at a different line depending upon the context and the presence of a System Label. These special labels start with a quad symbol so as to present no confusion with normal labels. The following table lists the system labels defined so far and the special context in which they are used.

⎕ID: is called when an identity element is needed as in foo/R where R is empty.
⎕MS: is called when a user-defined function/operator is invoked by the Multiset Operator.
⎕PRO: is called when a prototype element is needed as in foo¨R where R is empty, or L foo¨R where one of both of L or R is empty and the other is conformable.


For example,

    ∇ Z←{L} foo R
[1]   Z←L,R ⋄ →0
[2]   ⎕ID :Z←'Identity' ,(⎕NC 'L'),(⎕NC 'R') ⋄ →0
[3]   ⎕MS :Z←'Multiset' ,(⎕NC 'L'),(⎕NC 'R') ⋄ →0
[4]   ⎕PRO:Z←'Prototype',(⎕NC 'L'),(⎕NC 'R') ⋄ →0
    ∇

      ⎕fmt foo/⍬
┌──────────────┐
│┌8───────────┐│
││Identity 0 2││
│└────────────┘2
└∊─────────────┘
      foo⍦ 1
Multiset 0 2
      2 foo⍦ 1
Multiset 2 2
      ⎕fmt 1 foo¨⍬
┌0──────────────┐
│┌11───────────┐│
││          0 0││
│└─────────────┘2
└∊──────────────┘
      foo/¨0⍴⊂⍬
NONCE ERROR
      foo/¨0⍴⊂⍬
         ∧

  • In the Identity element case, the function is called with the reduction function's right argument prototype as the right argument to the user-defined function/operator; the left argument is undefined. For example, in foo/3 0⍴⊂⍳4, the (right) argument passed to the function is 0 0 0 0. The return value from the function is used as the common item in the result. Thus, the ⎕ID entry point is called only once even though the result may have multiple copies of the return value.

  • In the Multiset case, the user-defined function/operator is called with the same argument(s) as the multiset derived function.

  • In the Prototype case, the user-defined function/operator is called with arguments that are the prototypes of the respective arguments; in the monadic case, the left argument is undefined.

  • For the moment, if two or more system labels would be called at the same time (such as the last example above), a NONCE ERROR is signaled.